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For other uses, see Chickenpox (disambiguation). "Varicella" redirects here. For other uses, see Varicella (disambiguation). Not to be confused with Fowlpox or Smallpox. Chickenpox Synonyms Varicella Male with varicella disease Specialty Infectious disease Symptoms Small, itchy blisters, headache, loss of appetite, tiredness Usual onset 10–21 days after exposure Duration 5–7 days Causes Varicella zoster virus Prevention Varicella vaccine Medication Calamine lotion, paracetamol (acetaminophen), aciclovir Deaths 6,400 (with shingles) Chickenpox, also known as varicella, is a highly contagious disease caused by the initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV).
 The disease results in a characteristic skin rash that forms small, itchy blisters, which eventually scab over. It usually starts on the chest, back, and face then spreads to the rest of the body. Other symptoms may include fever, tiredness, and headaches. Symptoms usually last five to seven days. Complications may occasionally include pneumonia, inflammation of the brain, and bacterial skin infections.
 The disease is often more severe in adults than in children. Symptoms begin 10 to 21 days after exposure to the virus. Chickenpox is an airborne disease which spreads easily through the coughs and sneezes of an infected person. It may be spread from one to two days before the rash appears until all lesions have crusted over. It may also spread through contact with the blisters. Those with shingles may spread chickenpox to those who are not immune through contact with the blisters.
 The disease can usually be diagnosed based on the presenting symptom; however, in unusual cases it may be confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of the blister fluid or scabs. Testing for antibodies may be done to determine if a person is or is not immune. People usually only get chickenpox once. Although reinfections by the virus occur, these reinfections usually do not cause any symptoms.
 The varicella vaccine has resulted in a decrease in the number of cases and complications from the disease. It protects about 70 to 90 percent of people from disease with a greater benefit for severe disease. Routine immunization of children is recommended in many countries. Immunization within three days of exposure may improve outcomes in children. Treatment of those infected may include calamine lotion to help with itching, keeping the fingernails short to decrease injury from scratching, and the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) to help with fevers.
 For those at increased risk of complications antiviral medication such as aciclovir are recommended. Chickenpox occurs in all parts of the world. In 2013 there were 140 million cases of chickenpox and herpes zoster worldwide. Before routine immunization the number of cases occurring each year was similar to the number of people born. Since immunization the number of infections in the United States has decreased nearly 90%.
 In 2015 chickenpox resulted in 6,400 deaths globally – down from 8,900 in 1990. Death occurs in about 1 per 60,000 cases. Chickenpox was not separated from smallpox until the late 19th century. In 1888 its connection to shingles was determined. The first documented use of the term chicken pox was in 1658. Various explanations have been suggested for the use of "chicken" in the name, one being the relative mildness of the disease.
 Signs and symptoms A single blister, typical during the early stages of the rash The early (prodromal) symptoms in adolescents and adults are nausea, loss of appetite, aching muscles, and headache. This is followed by the characteristic rash or oral sores, malaise, and a low-grade fever that signal the presence of the disease. Oral manifestations of the disease (enanthem) not uncommonly may precede the external rash (exanthem).
In children the illness is not usually preceded by prodromal symptoms, and the first sign is the rash or the spots in the oral cavity. The rash begins as small red dots on the face, scalp, torso, upper arms and legs; progressing over 10–12 hours to small bumps, blisters and pustules; followed by umbilication and the formation of scabs. At the blister stage, intense itching is usually present.
Blisters may also occur on the palms, soles, and genital area. Commonly, visible evidence of the disease develops in the oral cavity and tonsil areas in the form of small ulcers which can be painful or itchy or both; this enanthem (internal rash) can precede the exanthem (external rash) by 1 to 3 days or can be concurrent. These symptoms of chickenpox appear 10 to 21 days after exposure to a contagious person.
Adults may have a more widespread rash and longer fever, and they are more likely to experience complications, such as varicella pneumonia. Because watery nasal discharge containing live virus usually precedes both exanthem (external rash) and enanthem (oral ulcers) by 1 to 2 days, the infected person actually becomes contagious one to two days before recognition of the disease. Contagiousness persists until all vesicular lesions have become dry crusts (scabs), which usually entails four or five days, by which time nasal shedding of live virus ceases.
The condition usually resolves by itself within a couple of weeks. The rash may, however, last for up to one month. Chickenpox is contagious starting from one to two days before the appearance of the rash and lasts until the lesions have crusted. Chickenpox is rarely fatal, although it is generally more severe in adult men than in women or children. Non-immune pregnant women and those with a suppressed immune system are at highest risk of serious complications.
Arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) associated with chickenpox in the previous year accounts for nearly one third of childhood AIS. The most common late complication of chickenpox is shingles (herpes zoster), caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus decades after the initial, often childhood, chickenpox infection. The back of a 30-year-old male after five days of the rash A 3-year-old girl with a chickenpox rash on her torso Lower leg of a child with chickenpox A child with chickenpox A child with chickenpox on her face.
Pregnancy and neonates During pregnancy the dangers to the fetus associated with a primary VZV infection are greater in the first six months. In the third trimester, the mother is more likely to have severe symptoms. For pregnant women, antibodies produced as a result of immunization or previous infection are transferred via the placenta to the fetus. Varicella infection in pregnant women could lead to spread via the placenta and infection of the fetus.
If infection occurs during the first 28 weeks of gestation, this can lead to fetal varicella syndrome (also known as congenital varicella syndrome). Effects on the fetus can range in severity from underdeveloped toes and fingers to severe anal and bladder malformation. Possible problems include: Damage to brain: encephalitis,microcephaly, hydrocephaly,aplasia of brain Damage to the eye: optic stalk, optic cup, and lens vesicles, microphthalmia, cataracts, chorioretinitis, optic atrophy Other neurological disorder: damage to cervical and lumbosacral spinal cord, motor/sensory deficits, absent deep tendon reflexes, anisocoria/Horner's syndrome Damage to body: hypoplasia of upper/lower extremities, anal and bladder sphincter dysfunction Skin disorders: (cicatricial) skin lesions, hypopigmentation Infection late in gestation or immediately following birth is referred to as "neonatal varicella".
 Maternal infection is associated with premature delivery. The risk of the baby developing the disease is greatest following exposure to infection in the period 7 days before delivery and up to 8 days following the birth. The baby may also be exposed to the virus via infectious siblings or other contacts, but this is of less concern if the mother is immune. Newborns who develop symptoms are at a high risk of pneumonia and other serious complications of the disease.
 Diagnosis Chickenpox. The diagnosis of chickenpox is primarily based on the signs and symptoms, with typical early symptoms followed by a characteristic rash. Confirmation of the diagnosis is by examination of the fluid within the vesicles of the rash, or by testing blood for evidence of an acute immunologic response. Vesicular fluid can be examined with a Tzanck smear, or by testing for direct fluorescent antibody.
The fluid can also be "cultured", whereby attempts are made to grow the virus from a fluid sample. Blood tests can be used to identify a response to acute infection (IgM) or previous infection and subsequent immunity (IgG). Prenatal diagnosis of fetal varicella infection can be performed using ultrasound, though a delay of 5 weeks following primary maternal infection is advised. A PCR (DNA) test of the mother's amniotic fluid can also be performed, though the risk of spontaneous abortion due to the amniocentesis procedure is higher than the risk of the baby's developing fetal varicella syndrome.
 Pathophysiology Main article: Varicella zoster virus Exposure to VZV in a healthy child initiates the production of host immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies; IgG antibodies persist for life and confer immunity. Cell-mediated immune responses are also important in limiting the scope and the duration of primary varicella infection. After primary infection, VZV is hypothesized to spread from mucosal and epidermal lesions to local sensory nerves.
VZV then remains latent in the dorsal ganglion cells of the sensory nerves. Reactivation of VZV results in the clinically distinct syndrome of herpes zoster (i.e., shingles), postherpetic neuralgia, and sometimes Ramsay Hunt syndrome type II. Varicella zoster can affect the arteries in the neck and head, producing stroke, either during childhood, or after a latency period of many years. Shingles Main article: Herpes zoster After a chickenpox infection, the virus remains dormant in the body's nerve tissues.
The immune system keeps the virus at bay, but later in life, usually in an adult, it can be reactivated and cause a different form of the viral infection called shingles (also known as herpes zoster). The United States Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) suggests that every adult over the age of 60 years get the herpes zoster vaccine. Shingles affects one in five adults infected with chickenpox as children, especially those who are immune-suppressed, particularly from cancer, HIV, or other conditions.
Stress can bring on shingles as well, although scientists are still researching the connection. Shingles are most commonly found in adults over the age of 60 who were diagnosed with chickenpox when they were under the age of 1. Prevention Hygiene measures The spread of chickenpox can be prevented by isolating affected individuals. Contagion is by exposure to respiratory droplets, or direct contact with lesions, within a period lasting from three days before the onset of the rash, to four days after the onset of the rash.
 The chickenpox virus is susceptible to disinfectants, notably chlorine bleach (i.e., sodium hypochlorite). Like all enveloped viruses, it is sensitive to desiccation, heat and detergents. Vaccine Main article: Varicella vaccine The varicella vaccine is recommended in many countries. Some countries require the varicella vaccination or an exemption before entering elementary school. A second dose is recommended five years after the initial immunization.
 A vaccinated person is likely to have a milder case of chickenpox if they become infected. Immunization within three days following household contact reduces infection rates and severity in children. It is part of the routine immunization schedule in the US. Some European countries include it as part of universal vaccinations in children, but not all countries provide the vaccine due to its cost.
 In the UK as of 2014, the vaccine is only recommended in people who are particularly vulnerable to chickenpox. In populations that have not been immunized or if immunity is questionable, a clinician may order an Enzyme immunoassay. An immunoassay measures the levels of antibodies against the virus that give immunity to a person. If the levels of antibodies are low (low titer) or questionable, reimmunization may be done.
 Treatment Treatment mainly consists of easing the symptoms. As a protective measure, people are usually required to stay at home while they are infectious to avoid spreading the disease to others. Cutting the nails short or wearing gloves may prevent scratching and minimize the risk of secondary infections. Although there have been no formal clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness of topical application of calamine lotion (a topical barrier preparation containing zinc oxide, and one of the most commonly used interventions), it has an excellent safety profile.
 It is important to maintain good hygiene and daily cleaning of skin with warm water to avoid secondary bacterial infection. Scratching may also increase the risk of secondary infection. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) but not aspirin may be used to reduce fever. Aspirin use by someone with chickenpox may cause the serious, sometimes fatal disease of the liver and brain, Reye syndrome. People at risk of developing severe complications who have had significant exposure to the virus may be given intra-muscular varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG), a preparation containing high titres of antibodies to varicella zoster virus, to ward off the disease.
 Antivirals are sometimes used. Children If aciclovir by mouth is started within 24 hours of rash onset, it decreases symptoms by one day but has no effect on complication rates. Use of acyclovir therefore is not currently recommended for individuals with normal immune function. Children younger than 12 years old and older than one month are not meant to receive antiviral drugs unless they have another medical condition which puts them at risk of developing complications.
 Treatment of chickenpox in children is aimed at symptoms while the immune system deals with the virus. With children younger than 12 years, cutting nails and keeping them clean is an important part of treatment as they are more likely to scratch their blisters more deeply than adults. Aspirin is highly contraindicated in children younger than 16 years, as it has been related to Reye syndrome.
 Adults Infection in otherwise healthy adults tends to be more severe.Treatment with antiviral drugs (e.g. acyclovir or valacyclovir) is generally advised, as long as it is started within 24–48 hours from rash onset. Remedies to ease the symptoms of chickenpox in adults are basically the same as those used for children. Adults are more often prescribed antiviral medication, as it is effective in reducing the severity of the condition and the likelihood of developing complications.
Antiviral medicines do not kill the virus but stop it from multiplying. Adults are advised to increase water intake to reduce dehydration and to relieve headaches. Painkillers such as paracetamol (acetaminophen) are recommended, as they are effective in relieving itching and other symptoms such as fever or pains. Antihistamines relieve itching and may be used in cases where the itching prevents sleep, because they also act as a sedative.
As with children, antiviral medication is considered more useful for those adults who are more prone to develop complications. These include pregnant women or people who have a weakened immune system. Sorivudine, a nucleoside analogue, has been reported to be effective in the treatment of primary varicella in healthy adults (case reports only), but large-scale clinical trials are still needed to demonstrate its efficacy.
 After recovering from chickenpox, it is recommended by doctors that adults take one injection of VZV immune globulin and one injection of varicella vaccine or herpes zoster vaccine. Prognosis The duration of the visible blistering caused by varicella zoster virus varies in children usually from 4 to 7 days, and the appearance of new blisters begins to subside after the fifth day. Chickenpox infection is milder in young children, and symptomatic treatment, with sodium bicarbonate baths or antihistamine medication may ease itching.
It is recommended to keep new infants from birth up to age 6 months away from an infected person for 10 to 21 days because their immune systems are not developed enough to handle the stress it can bring on.Paracetamol (acetaminophen) is widely used to reduce fever. Aspirin, or products containing aspirin, should not be given to children with chickenpox, as it can cause Reye's Syndrome. In adults, the disease is more severe, though the incidence is much less common.
Infection in adults is associated with greater morbidity and mortality due to pneumonia (either direct viral pneumonia or secondary bacterial pneumonia),bronchitis (either viral bronchitis or secondary bacterial bronchitis),hepatitis, and encephalitis. In particular, up to 10% of pregnant women with chickenpox develop pneumonia, the severity of which increases with onset later in gestation.
In England and Wales, 75% of deaths due to chickenpox are in adults. Inflammation of the brain, or encephalitis, can occur in immunocompromised individuals, although the risk is higher with herpes zoster.Necrotizing fasciitis is also a rare complication. Varicella can be lethal to adults with impaired immunity. The number of people in this high-risk group has increased, due to the HIV epidemic and the increased use of immunosuppressive therapies.
 Varicella is a particular problem in hospitals, when there are patients with immune systems weakened by drugs (e.g., high-dose steroids) or HIV. Secondary bacterial infection of skin lesions, manifesting as impetigo, cellulitis, and erysipelas, is the most common complication in healthy children. Disseminated primary varicella infection usually seen in the immunocompromised may have high morbidity.
Ninety percent of cases of varicella pneumonia occur in the adult population. Rarer complications of disseminated chickenpox include myocarditis, hepatitis, and glomerulonephritis. Hemorrhagic complications are more common in the immunocompromised or immunosuppressed populations, although healthy children and adults have been affected. Five major clinical syndromes have been described: febrile purpura, malignant chickenpox with purpura, postinfectious purpura, purpura fulminans, and anaphylactoid purpura.
These syndromes have variable courses, with febrile purpura being the most benign of the syndromes and having an uncomplicated outcome. In contrast, malignant chickenpox with purpura is a grave clinical condition that has a mortality rate of greater than 70%. The cause of these hemorrhagic chickenpox syndromes is not known. Epidemiology Primary varicella occurs in all countries worldwide. In 2013 the disease resulted in 7,000 deaths – down from 8,900 in 1990.
 In temperate countries, chickenpox is primarily a disease of children, with most cases occurring during the winter and spring, most likely due to school contact. It is one of the classic diseases of childhood, with the highest prevalence in the 4–10-year-old age group. Like rubella, it is uncommon in preschool children. Varicella is highly communicable, with an infection rate of 90% in close contacts.
In temperate countries, most people become infected before adulthood, and 10% of young adults remain susceptible. In the tropics, chickenpox often occurs in older people and may cause more serious disease. In adults, the pock marks are darker and the scars more prominent than in children. In the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) does not require state health departments to report infections of chickenpox, and only 31 states currently volunteer this information.
 However, in a 2013 study conducted by the social media disease surveillance tool called Sickweather, anecdotal reports of chickenpox infections on Facebook and Twitter were used to measure and rank states with the most infections per capita, with Maryland, Tennessee and Illinois in the top three. Etymology Why the term was used is not clear but it may be due to it being a relatively mild disease.
 It has been said to be derived from chickpeas, based on resemblance of the vesicles to chickpeas, or to come from the rash resembling chicken pecks. Other suggestions include the designation chicken for a child (i.e., literally 'child pox'), a corruption of itching-pox, or the idea that the disease may have originated in chickens.Samuel Johnson explained the designation as "from its being of no very great danger".
 Society and culture Because chickenpox is usually more severe in adults than it is in children, some parents deliberately expose their children to the virus, sometimes by taking them to "chickenpox parties". Doctors counter that children are safer getting the vaccine, which is a weakened form of the virus, rather than getting the disease, which can be fatal. Other animals Humans are the only known species that the disease affects naturally.
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PMID 8950684. ^ Myers MG, Kramer LW, Stanberry LR (December 1987). "Varicella in a gorilla". Journal of Medical Virology. 23 (4): 317–22. doi:10.1002/jmv.1890230403. PMID 2826674. External links Classification V · T · D ICD-10: B01 ICD-9-CM: 052 DiseasesDB: 29118 External resources MedlinePlus: 001592 eMedicine: ped/2385 derm/74, emerg/367 Patient UK: Chickenpox Wikipedia's health care articles can be viewed offline with the Medical Wikipedia app.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chickenpox. Chickenpox at DMOZ "Prevention of Varicella: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP)". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 12 July 1996. Retrieved 18 May 2013. "Management of Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) Infections" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Prisons: Clinical Practice Guideline. December 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2013.
Retrieved 18 May 2013. John W. Gnann Jr. (2007). "Chapter 65 Antiviral therapy of varicella-zoster virus infections". PMID 21348091. Sarah McSweeney-Ryan; Megan Sandel. "The Health Care of Homeless Persons - Part I - Varicella (Chickenpox" (PDF). Boston Health Care for the Homeless Program. Archived from the original (PDF) on 8 September 2015. 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Is it risky to be exposed to chicken pox during pregnancy? It depends. If you've had chicken pox before, you're probably immune. You're also likely to be immune if you received the chicken pox vaccine, which has been available in the United States since 1995. A single dose of the chicken pox vaccine, which was the standard recommendation when it was first offered, effectively prevents the disease in 80 to 85 percent of people vaccinated and prevents a severe case in most others.
Since then, research has shown that a second dose provides additional protection, so the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) now advises getting two doses of the chicken pox vaccine. Because many adults are immune, very few pregnant women get chicken pox – estimates range from 1 to 5 cases for every 10,000 pregnancies. But you could get quite sick if you're not immune and do happen to catch the disease while you're pregnant, and there's a small chance that your baby would be affected.
You can find out your immune status by having a simple blood test. What could happen to my baby if I got chicken pox in early pregnancy? Chances are good that your baby would be fine. But if you get chicken pox during the first or second trimester, there's a slight risk (less than 2 percent) that your baby could get congenital varicella syndrome. The risk is highest if you're infected between weeks 13 and 20.
Congenital varicella syndrome is characterized by birth defects, most commonly skin scarring, malformed limbs, an abnormally small head, neurologic problems (like intellectual disability), and vision problems. A baby with congenital varicella syndrome may grow poorly in utero and suffer from seizures as well as physical and mental developmental disabilities. The infection may also increase the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth.
If you come down with chicken pox, you'll have a detailed ultrasound to check for signs of defects or other problems and then have at least one follow-up ultrasound. You may also choose to meet with a genetic counselor or maternal-fetal medicine specialist to discuss your particular risks. Is my baby at risk if I get chicken pox close to my due date? If you get chicken pox early in the third trimester, your baby will probably be fine.
Here's why: About five days after you come down with chicken pox, your body produces antibodies to the virus, and these pass to your baby through the placenta. This gives him protection that his own immature immune system can't provide. The most risky time to come down with chicken pox is between five days before giving birth and two days after delivery because during that time frame, your baby is exposed to the virus but doesn't have time to receive antibodies from you.
In this case, there's a high risk (up to 50 percent) that he'll develop neonatal varicella, or newborn chicken pox, which can be a serious and even life-threatening condition, especially if left untreated. Fortunately, your baby's risk of a severe case can be greatly reduced if he gets a shot of varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG), a blood product that contains chicken pox antibodies. (You may also see this referred to as VariZIG, which is the brand-name product available in the United States.
) Your baby will be given the shot soon after birth if you develop chicken pox within five days of delivery, or as soon as you discover a rash if it's within two days after delivery. The VZIG shot is also given to every baby born before 28 weeks (whether or not the baby could have the virus) and to all preterm babies born after 28 weeks whose mothers aren't immune. Your newborn will get the antiviral drug acyclovir intravenously if he shows any signs of the infection, such as a fever or a rash (even if it's just a few spots).
Is having chicken pox during pregnancy riskier for my health? Yes. It's already more risky for you to get the virus as an adult than as a child because some adults who get the infection also develop a condition called varicella pneumonia, which can be severe and even life-threatening. The risk of developing pneumonia may be higher if you are a smoker or if you get chicken pox during the third trimester.
In pregnant women, this complication is also associated with higher rates of preterm birth. What should I do if I'm exposed to chicken pox? If you know you're immune, you don't need to do anything. If you're not sure, call your healthcare provider immediately to have a blood test. If the blood test shows that you're not immune, you can get a shot of VariZIG to reduce your chances of a severe infection and very serious complications.
You can receive the shot up to 10 days after being exposed to chicken pox, though it's best to get it as soon as possible. Unfortunately, the shot won't prevent fetal infection. Note: This protection lasts only about three weeks, so if you're exposed to chicken pox again more than three weeks after your injection, you'll need another shot. What are the chances I'll catch chicken pox if I'm exposed? Chicken pox is highly contagious.
If you're not immune and you have direct contact with an infected person, it's very likely that you'll get sick too. For example, if someone in your household has chicken pox and you're not immune, chances are 90 percent that you'll catch it too. How soon would I develop chicken pox symptoms? It can take anywhere from 10 to 21 days after exposure, though most often you'll see signs after 14 to 16 days.
At first, you may have mild flu-like symptoms, followed by an itchy rash. The rash starts out as little red bumps that blister as they get larger, then eventually dry out and scab over. You'll probably see the rash first on your face, chest, or abdomen, and new eruptions will gradually appear on other parts of your body. You're contagious from about 48 hours before the first crop of bumps appears until they've all crusted over.
© Scott Camazine / Science Source What should I do if I think I have chicken pox? If you start to have symptoms and think you have chicken pox, call your healthcare provider right away. Don't show up unannounced at your provider's office because you could infect other pregnant women there. If you need to be seen, they'll make special arrangements so you won't sit in a crowded waiting room. If you do have chicken pox, you might get a prescription for the antiviral drug acyclovir.
If you develop any signs of pneumonia, like a fever with rapid breathing, discomfort when you breathe, or a cough, call your provider right away because your condition can get worse rapidly. Call 911 if you have severe symptoms, such as trouble breathing or chest pain. Even if your symptoms are relatively mild, you'll be hospitalized so you can be carefully monitored and treated with IV acyclovir.
Can I get the chicken pox vaccine while I'm pregnant? No. The CDC advises women to wait a month after getting the chicken pox vaccine before even trying to conceive. Arrange to get the first dose of the vaccination right after you have your baby (and the second dose four to eight weeks later at your postpartum visit), so you don't have to worry about infection during your next pregnancy. It's safe to get the vaccine while you're breastfeeding.
How can I reduce my risk of getting chicken pox during pregnancy if I'm not immune? Avoid being around anyone who has or may have chicken pox. This includes anyone who's not immune and has come in contact with an infected person in the past three weeks, and anyone with flu-like symptoms. People with chicken pox are very contagious before they develop the telltale rash. Also take care to avoid contact with anyone whom you know has shingles, which is a condition that affects people who've already had chicken pox.
With shingles, the chicken pox virus is reactivated, causing a painful, itchy skin rash. Even though you can't catch shingles from someone with the condition, you can catch the chicken pox virus. The CDC also recommends that all healthy children age 12 months or older and other susceptible members of your household be vaccinated to help you stay healthy because you're most likely to catch chicken pox from someone who lives with you.
This is especially important if they've recently been exposed to chicken pox because getting vaccinated within a few days of exposure reduces their risk of coming down with the disease. Could I catch chicken pox from someone who's just been vaccinated? Although it's theoretically possible for a newly vaccinated person to transmit the chicken pox vaccine virus to someone else, the risk is minuscule.
Only eight cases have been confirmed since 1995, making it extremely rare. This is much lower than the chance of a susceptible family member contracting the natural virus and passing it to you during your pregnancy. Is it dangerous to develop shingles while pregnant? Shingles most commonly affects older adults and people with compromised immune systems. It's very rare for a pregnant woman to develop shingles.
But even if you did, the risk to your baby would be negligible. Learn more: Infections to watch out for during pregnancy What to know about Zika Can pregnancy ease chronic health conditions?
Title: Chicken Pox Test For Immunity