Cylinder Head Pressure Testing Equipment with the image above is a component on the Cylinder Head Pressure Testing Equipment classification on Typing Tutor Test content articles. Download this impression without cost in High definition resolution the selection by ideal pressing about the Cylinder Head Pressure Testing Equipment image. In case you usually do not obtain the exact resolution you are searching for, then choose a native or bigger resolution.
Engine Rebuilding Equipment - Automotive Equipment - Machine Shop Equipment Phone: 1- 413- 566-0037 Phone: 1- 413- 566-0037 This Web site created, edited and maintained by:http://www.amsequipmentsales.com send all questions or comments to firstname.lastname@example.org Cylinder Head and Block Pressure Tester Award winning design.
The most reliable and complete crack testing method includes heated and curculated in line system with air pressure. This method will find cracks that Air testing will not find. The system is very fast and can pressure test Automotive & Diesel Heads and Blocks. The Newclear Pressure Tester is a revolutionary new machine that has been specifically designed for the automotive engineering industry.
It has the capability to effectively test various cylinder heads and blocks e.g. a single Honda cylinder head, a Cummins 350 big cam block or a cummins NH block. The main features of the Newclear Pressure Tester are one of total visibility through a transparent pressure plate with a 360° rotation capacity as well as an adjustable center of gravity to allow rotation of either a cylinder head or block to take place with ease.
It is a complete unit with the added advantages of an in-line heater system which can provide hot and cold hydraulic testing capabilities and a quick set-up time. Pressure testing is very profitable. 1 Job per week pays for the equipment. Clear visibility. Simple and quick set up time. In-line heater system for hot / cold water testing. Universal side clamping system. Complete rubber blanking-off element kit to suit most cylinder heads / blocks.
Adjustable center of gravity for ease of rotating cylinder heads / blocks 360°. PRESSURE TESTING A MUST!!! All Cylinder Heads and Blocks should be pressure tested especially the "Cooked" ones. With today's modern Multi-Valve Light weight, high output Aluminium Cylinder Heads with Cast Iron Blocks, it has become essential to have a good quality hot and cold Hydraulic Pressure Tester. THE MOST IMPORTANT CRITERIA TO MEET IS THAT OF: Eliminating Comebacks The customer must be confident that the "Problem" has been positively identified.
Major Piston manufacturers and Cylinder Head Gasket manufacturers that have been consulted have confirmed the need for High Quality Pressure Testing to take place when an engine is reconditioned or remanufactured. With the great difference in Expansion Rates between aluminium, cast iron and modern light weight design, it has become essential to have a High Quality Pressure Test done in order to detect Fractures and Porosity in cores.
Tests have proven : that some cores only fracture on disassembly and not when the engine overheats, that some fractures are only evident after a Cold Hydraulic Test, then a Hot Hydraulic Test followed by another Cold Hydraulic Test. It is important to note that these three tests have to be carried out in rapid succession - 10 minutes maximu Frequently Asked Questions Q: Can you pressure test blocks? Yes - System has an adjustable centre of gravity and special safety clamps to make rotating of blocks while pressure testing, safe and simple.
Q: Can you pressure test V Heads? Yes - All angles. Q: Can you pressure test Cat Heads? Yes - Maximum length is 1200mm Q:Do you have to pressure test all heads in a hot condition? No - Most cracks are easily indentified using cold water and air pressure but the hot water facility is always available. Q: Are you able to get spares? Yes - Loose spares are always available. Q: Should you have an unusual head (very uncommon) how do you pressure test? We can custom make rubber blanking elements - but over the years we have added most blanking elements that should be required.
Q: Does a qualified man need to operate the machine? No - the system is very simple and one can be guided, with the supplied workshop manual and the training video. Q: Who uses this machine? All big and small automotive rebuilders who need to identify problem heads and eliminate comebacks. Q: Why do we need to pressure test? To give a professional service and eliminate comebacks which means a loss of profit.
Q: What if there is a leak in the oil gallery? Some heads can be repaired - most are then scrapped. Q: Can the machine be used in a production line environment? The machine can be modified to suite some production lines. Valued Customer, Re: Pressure tester for the automotive engine rebuilders. Newclear Pressure Testers was established in 1994, specifically to manufacture a universal pressure tester for the automotive industry.
The standard unit Newclear 150 big block kit is crated as a complete machine. We supply a workshop manual plus an installation and training video. After assembling the machine you would need to connect an airline, water line and 380 V electricity supply, you would then have a fully operational inline hot / cold water, air pressure tester. This machine has a complete set of rubber blanking elements ( no plates required ) for most cylinder heads / blocks e.
g. V12 Mercedes Benz, Cummins, Caterpillar, that comes into the workshop. With the Newclear 150 no further equipment is needed. Should you only be involved with machining smaller blocks and small diesel / petrol heads and would prefer to take only the Newclear 100, which is the same basic machine excluding the full block kit. You would then be able to pressure test small blocks, petrol and diesel heads with a maximum length of 850mm x 250mm wide x 300 high.
The full big block kit can always be added later, if required. There is no other machine on the market that comes as a complete unit and is able to pressure test any block or head that comes into a workshop. This machine has been sold in South Africa (over 400 Machines), Africa, Europe and the USA and is able accommodate any type of head / block in any of these countries. The agents that we would require would be Automotive Engine Rebuilder Machine Distributors.
Should you require any further information please do not hestitate to contact us. Best Regards Contact John Zanetti NEWCLEAR PRESSURE TESTER Hot Water, Cold Water and Air Test. Separate ball valves which feed hot or cold water immediately. Water flows through an in-line heater element.The advantage is that you have almost immediate hot water flow ONLY when necessary to heat up a cylinder head.
Minimum water and electricity is used. Cold water cools head. SUBMERGIBLE TYPE Large container of water which needs to be constantly heated up to maintain temperature. Head cannot be cooled down upon com- pletion of test, danger to operater. Transparent Plate in Frame gives clear visibility to pinpoint exactly where head may be leaking e.g. crack down a belt hole, cracked in the oil gallery, cracked underneath a seat, porosity leaking or cracked from a jacket to a seat.
Water gets dirty fairly quickly. Bubbles appear and one is not sure if a rubber stopper is leaking or a crack - you cannot pinpoint the exact location of the leak.The rubber gasket / steel plate tends to cover areas which may be cracked e.g. jacket to valve seat. Rubber blanking off elements - full set provided which will suit most heads used internationally. Rubber gasket steel plate - each head needs it's own plate - expensive and time consuming locating the correct plate to suit each head.
Rubber blanking element kit provides manifold blanking rubber to allow inlet and outlet flow of water / air through water ports on top of cylinder head. Special inlet ports on the side of the heads need to be made to suite different heads. Heads and blocks can be rotated 360 degrees. Submergible - cannot handle large blocks. V10 Mercedes Benz blocks can be pressure tested and rotated.
Cannot accommodate. Cat 3406 heads can be pressure tested Cannot accommodate. Simple system to accommodate any type of head e.g. V8, Citroen, Peugeot diesel etc. Quick and easy to setup. Position of setup is easily accessible by hand or overhead, block & tackle in the case of large blocks or Cat heads. Heads can be dirty - grind welded section slightly - and can still be pressure tested without affecting the efficiency of the machine.
Only hot water test. Submergible type - heads all need to be totally cleaned before submerging. Comparison Cylinder Head and Block Pressure Tester Down Loads Brochure Quote & Operations Manual [embedded content]
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Cylinder head porting refers to the process of modifying the intake and exhaust ports of an internal combustion engine to improve the quality and quantity of the air flow. Cylinder heads, as manufactured, are usually suboptimal due to design and manufacturing constraints. Porting the heads provides the finely detailed attention required to bring the engine to the highest level of efficiency. More than any other single factor, the porting process is responsible for the high power output of modern engines.
This process can be applied to a standard racing engine to optimize its power output as well as to a production engine to turn it into a racing engine, to enhance its power output for daily use or to alter its power output characteristics to suit a particular application. Daily human experience with air gives the impression that air is light and nearly non-existent as we move slowly through it. However, an engine running at high speed experiences a totally different substance.
In that context, air can be thought of as thick, sticky, elastic, gooey and heavy (see viscosity). Pumping it is a major problem for engines running at speed, so head porting helps to alleviate this. Port modifications When a modification is decided upon through careful flow testing with an air flow bench, the original port wall material can be carefully reshaped by hand with die grinders or by numerically controlled milling machines.
For major modifications the ports must be welded up or similarly built up to add material where none existed. This illustration shows the difference between a poor performing port and an excellent design after porting modification. The difference between the two show the general idea of improving port flow. Higher and straighter is better for peak power. The modification shown is commonly referred to "increasing the downdraft angle", and is limited by mechanical constraints such as engine bay height, the amount of material in the parent casting, or the relocation of valve gear to accommodate the longer valve stem.
Modifications this extreme are rarely done. An example of a poorly performing port, a mold of the ports of a Ford two-liter head destined for use in Formula 2000 racing. It is shown as manufactured with the intake port on the right. The Ford two-liter shown above in stock trim was capable of delivering 115 horsepower@5500 rpm for a BMEP of 136 psi. Contrast this with the Pro Stock ports shown below.
This aftermarket racing GM Pro Stock head was capable of 1300 horsepower@9500 rpm with a BMEP of 238 psi. Since BMEP is an excellent efficiency measure and closely related to volumetric efficiency, the aftermarket Pro Stock head is vastly better than the stock Ford. In fact a BMEP of 238 puts it near the top of the racing engine world. It is close to the limit for a naturally aspirated gas-burning engine.
Formula 1 four-valve/cylinder engines typically achieve BMEP values of 220 psi. Of course cam profiles, engine rpm, engine height constraints and other limitations play a role in this difference as well, but the difference in port design is a major factor. This photo is of port molds of a highly developed 500 cubic inch aftermarket racing GM Pro Stock head. Note the height and straightness of the ports, particularly the exhaust port on the left.
-(This design is based on a cylinder head casting, which is purpose-built just for Pro Stock racing applications. The head is supplied with small ports with ample material everywhere for individual porting specialists to shape to their requirements without welding on additional metal.) Port components Parts of the port and their terminology Wave dynamics This highly simplified animation shows how air flows as waves in an intake system.
Note the green "valve" opening and closing. When the valve opens, the air doesn’t flow in, it decompresses into the low-pressure region below it. All the air on the upstream side of the moving disturbance boundary is completely isolated and unaffected by what happens on the downstream side. The air at the runner entrance does not move until the wave reaches all the way to the end. It is only then that the entire runner can begin to flow.
Up until that point all that can happen is the higher pressure gas filling the volume of the runner decompresses or expands into the low-pressure region advancing up the runner. (Once the low-pressure wave reaches the open end of the runner it reverses sign, the inrushing air forces a high pressure wave down the runner. Not shown in this animation.) Conversely, the closing of the valve does not immediately stop flow at the runner entrance, which continues completely unaffected until the signal that the valve closed reaches it.
The closing valve causes a buildup of pressure that travels up the runner as a positive wave. The runner entrance continues to flow at full speed, forcing the pressure to rise until the signal reaches the entrance. This very considerable pressure rise can be seen on the graph below, it rises far above atmospheric pressure. It is this phenomenon that enables the so-called “ram tuning” to occur, and it is what is being “tuned” by tuned intake and exhaust systems.
The principle is the same as in the water hammer effect so well known to plumbers. The speed that the signal can travel is the speed of sound within the runner. This is why port/runner volumes are so important; the volumes of successive parts of the port/runner control the flow during all transition periods. That is, any time a change occurs in the cylinder – whether positive or negative – such as when the piston reaches maximum speed.
This point occurs at different points depending on the length of the connecting rod and the throw of the crank, and varies with the connecting rod ratio (rod/stroke). For normal automotive design this point is almost always between 69 and 79 degrees ATDC, with higher rod ratios favoring the later position. It only occurs at 1/2 stroke (90 degrees) with a connecting rod of infinite length. The wave/flow activity in a real engine is vastly more complex than this but the principle is the same.
At first glance this wave travel might seem to be blindingly fast and not very significant but a few calculations shows the opposite is true. In an intake runner at room temperature the sonic speed is about 1,100 feet per second (340 m/s) and traverses a 12-inch (300 mm) port/runner in 0.9 milliseconds. The engine using this system, running at 8500 rpm, takes a very considerable 46 crank degrees before any signal from the cylinder can reach the runner end (assuming no movement of the air in the runner).
46 degrees, during which nothing but the volume of the port/runner supplies the demands of the cylinder. This not only applies to the initial signal but to any and every change in the pressure or vacuum developed in the cylinder. Why couldn’t we just use a shorter runner so the delay is not so great? The answer lies at the end of the cycle when that big long runner now continues to flow at full speed disregarding the rising pressure in the cylinder and providing pressure to the cylinder when it is needed most.
The runner length also controls the timing of the returning waves and cannot be altered. A shorter runner would flow earlier but also would die earlier while returning the positive waves much too quickly and those waves would be weaker. The key is to find the optimum balance of all the factors for the engine requirements. Further complicating the system is the fact that the piston dome, the signal source, continually moves.
First moving down the cylinder, thus increasing the distance the signal must travel. Then moving back up at the end of the intake cycle when the valve is still open past BDC. The signals coming from the piston dome, after the initial runner flow has been established, must fight upstream against whatever velocity has been developed at that instant, delaying it further. The signals developed by the piston do not have a clean path up the runner either.
Large portions of it bounce off the rest of the combustion chamber and resonate inside the cylinder until an average pressure is reached. Also, temperature variations due to the changing pressures and absorption from hot engine parts cause changes in the local sonic velocity. When the valve closes, it causes a pile up of gas giving rise to a strong positive wave that must travel up the runner. The wave activity in the port/runner does not stop but continues to reverberate for some time.
When the valve next opens, the remaining waves influence the next cycle. This graph shows the pressure taken from the valve end (blue line) and the runner entrance(red line) of an engine with a 7-inch (180 mm) port/runner and running at 4500 rpm. Highlighted are two waves, suction wave and valve closing wave, seen and the valve end and runner entrance showing the signal delay. A lag of about 85 deg for the peak suction wave versus about 32 deg for the peak pressure wave.
A difference of some 53 deg due to the movement of the gas and piston position. The graph above shows the intake runner pressure over 720 crank degrees of an engine with a 7-inch (180 mm) intake port/runner running at 4500 rpm, which is its torque peak (close to maximum cylinder filling and BMEP for this engine). The two pressure traces are taken from the valve end (blue) and the runner entrance (red).
The blue line rises sharply as the intake valve closes. This causes a pile up of air, which becomes a positive wave reflected back up the runner and the red line shows that wave arriving at the runner entrance later. Note how the suction wave during cylinder filling is delayed even more by having to fight upstream against the inrushing air and the fact that the piston is further down the bore, increasing the distance.
The goal of tuning is to arrange the runners and valve timing so that there is a high-pressure wave in the port during the opening of the intake valve to get flow going quickly and then to have a second high pressure wave arrive just before valve closing so the cylinder fills as much as possible. The first wave is what is left in the runner from the previous cycle, while the second is primarily created during the current cycle by the suction wave changing sign at the runner entrance and arriving back at the valve in time for valve closing.
The factors involved are often contradictory and requires a careful balancing act to work. When it does work, it is possible to see volumetric efficiencies of 140%, similar to that of a decent supercharger, but it only occurs over a limited RPM range. Porting and polishing It is popularly held that enlarging the ports to the maximum possible size and applying a mirror finish is what porting entails.
However, that is not so. Some ports may be enlarged to their maximum possible size (in keeping with the highest level of aerodynamic efficiency), but those engines are highly developed, very-high-speed units where the actual size of the ports has become a restriction. Larger ports flow more fuel/air at higher RPMs but sacrifice torque at lower RPMs due to lower fuel/air velocity. A mirror finish of the port does not provide the increase that intuition suggests.
In fact, within intake systems, the surface is usually deliberately textured to a degree of uniform roughness to encourage fuel deposited on the port walls to evaporate quickly. A rough surface on selected areas of the port may also alter flow by energizing the boundary layer, which can alter the flow path noticeably, possibly increasing flow. This is similar to what the dimples on a golf ball do.
Flow bench testing shows that the difference between a mirror-finished intake port and a rough-textured port is typically less than 1%. The difference between a smooth-to-the-touch port and an optically mirrored surface is not measurable by ordinary means. Exhaust ports may be smooth-finished because of the dry gas flow and in the interest of minimizing exhaust by-product build-up. A 300- to 400-grit finish followed by a light buff is generally accepted to be representative of a near optimal finish for exhaust gas ports.
The reason that polished ports are not advantageous from a flow standpoint is that at the interface between the metal wall and the air, the air speed is zero (see boundary layer and laminar flow). This is due to the wetting action of the air and indeed all fluids. The first layer of molecules adheres to the wall and does not move significantly. The rest of the flow field must shear past, which develops a velocity profile (or gradient) across the duct.
For surface roughness to impact flow appreciably, the high spots must be high enough to protrude into the faster-moving air toward the center. Only a very rough surface does this. A developed velocity profile in a duct that shows why polished surfaces have little effect on flow. The air speed at the wall interface is zero regardless of how smooth it is. Two-stroke porting In addition to all the considerations given to a four-stroke engine port, two-stroke engine ports have additional ones: Scavenging quality/purity: The ports are responsible for sweeping as much exhaust out of the cylinder as possible and refilling it with as much fresh mixture as possible without a large amount of the fresh mixture also going out the exhaust.
This takes careful and subtle timing and aiming of all the transfer ports. Power band width: Since two-strokes are very dependent on wave dynamics, their power bands tend to be narrow. While struggling to get maximum power, care must always be taken to ensure that the power profile does not get too sharp and hard to control. Time area: Two-stroke port duration is often expressed as a function of time/area.
This integrates the continually changing open port area with the duration. Wider ports increase time/area without increasing duration while higher ports increase both. Timing: In addition to time area, the relationship between all the port timings strongly determine the power characteristics of the engine. Wave Dynamic considerations: Although four-strokes have this problem, two-strokes rely much more heavily on wave action in the intake and exhaust systems.
The two-stroke port design has strong effects on the wave timing and strength. Heat flow: The flow of heat in the engine is heavily dependent on the porting layout. Cooling passages must be routed around ports. Every effort must be made to keep the incoming charge from heating up but at the same time many parts are cooled primarily by that incoming fuel/air mixture. When ports take up too much space on the cylinder wall, the ability of the piston to transfer its heat through the walls to the coolant is hampered.
As ports get more radical, some areas of the cylinder get thinner, which can then overheat. Piston ring durability: A piston ring must ride on the cylinder wall smoothly with good contact to avoid mechanical stress and assist in piston cooling. In radical port designs, the ring has minimal contact in the lower stroke area, which can suffer extra wear. The mechanical shocks induced during the transition from partial to full cylinder contact can shorten the life of the ring considerably.
Very wide ports allow the ring to bulge out into the port, exacerbating the problem. Piston skirt durability: The piston must also contact the wall for cooling purposes but also must transfer the side thrust of the power stroke. Ports must be designed so that the piston can transfer these forces and heat to the cylinder wall while minimizing flex and shock to the piston. Engine configuration: Engine configuration can be influenced by port design.
This is primarily a factor in multi-cylinder engines. Engine width can be excessive for even two cylinder engines of certain designs. Rotary disk valve engines with wide sweeping transfers can be so wide as to be impractical as a parallel twin. The V-twin and fore-and-aft engine designs are used to control overall width. Cylinder distortion: Engine sealing ability, cylinder, piston and piston ring life all depend on reliable contact between cylinder and piston/piston ring so any cylinder distortion reduces power and engine life.
This distortion can be caused by uneven heating, local cylinder weakness, or mechanical stresses. Exhaust ports that have long passages in the cylinder casting conduct large amounts of heat to one side of the cylinder while on the other side the cool intake may be cooling the opposite side. The thermal distortion resulting from the uneven expansion reduces both power and durability although careful design can minimize the problem.
Combustion turbulence: The turbulence remaining in the cylinder after transfer persists into the combustion phase to help burning speed. Unfortunately good scavenging flow is slower and less turbulent. Methods The die grinder is the stock in trade of the head porter and are used with a variety of carbide cutters, grinding wheels and abrasive cartridges. The complex and sensitive shapes required in porting necessitate a good degree of artistic skill with a hand tool.
Until recently, CNC machining was used only to provide the basic shape of the port but hand finishing was usually still required because some areas of the port were not accessible to a CNC tool. New developments in CNC machining now allow this process to be fully automated with the assistance of CAD/CAM software. 5-Axis CNC controls using specialized fixtures like tilting rotary tables allow the cutting tool full access to the entire port.
The combination of CNC and CAM software give the porter full control over the port shape and surface finish. Measurement of the interior of the ports is difficult but must be done accurately. Sheet metal templates are made up, taking the shape from an experimental port, for both cross-sectional and lengthwise shape. Inserted in the port these templates are then used as a guide for shaping the final port.
Even a slight error might cause a loss in flow so measurement must be as accurate as possible. Confirmation of the final port shape and automated replication of the port is now done using digitizing. Digitizing is where a probe scans the entire shape of the port collecting data that can then be used by CNC machine tools and CAD/CAM software programs to model and cut the desired port shape. This replication process usually produces ports that flow within 1% of each other.
This kind of accuracy, repeatability, time has never before been possible. What used to take 18hrs. or more now takes less than 3hrs. Valves and valve seats are ground with special equipment designed for this purpose. Summary The internal aerodynamics involved in porting is counter-intuitive and complex. Successfully optimizing ports requires an air flow bench, a thorough knowledge of the principles involved, and engine simulation software.
Although a large portion of porting knowledge has been accumulated by individuals using "cut and try" methods over time, the tools and knowledge now exist to develop a porting design with a measure of certainty. Porting by inexperienced individuals without a full understanding of the fluid dynamics of the process still continues, but the results are spotty and the process is expensive and time-consuming, with many more failures than successes.
References External links Free demo engine simulator used to generate graph above Cylinder head porting techniques The Brzezinski "UnderCover" Cast Iron Cylinder Head Porting Technique A 5-axis CNC cylinder head porting machine in action. A number of articles about porting. Kinematic Models for Design Digital Library (KMODDL) - Movies and photos of hundreds of working mechanical-systems models at Cornell University.
Also includes an e-book library of classic texts on mechanical design and engineering. v t e Reciprocating engines and configurations Type Bourke Orbital Piston Pistonless (Wankel) Radial Rotary Split cycle Stelzer Tschudi Stroke cycles Two-stroke Four-stroke Five-stroke Six-stroke Two-and four-stroke Configurations & number of cylinders Single cylinder Single Two cylinders Split-single I2 V2 F2 Inline / straight I2 I3 I4 I5 I6 I7 I8 I9 I10 I12 I14 Flat F2 F4 F6 F8 F10 F12 F16 V / Vee V2 V3 V4 V5 V6 V8 V10 V12 V14 V16 V18 V20 V24 W W8 W12 W16 W18 Other inline H U Square four VR Opposed X X24 Junkers Jumo 222 Components Valves Cylinder head porting Corliss Intake Exhaust Multi Overhead Piston Poppet Side Sleeve Slide Rotary valve Variable valve timing Camless Desmodromic Hydraulic tappet Fuel supplies Carburetor Gasoline direct injection Common rail Mechanisms Cam Camshaft Overhead camshaft Connecting rod Crank Crankshaft Scotch yoke Swashplate Rhombic drive Linkages Peaucellier–Lipkin Watt's (parallel) Other Hemi Recuperator Turbo-compounding v t e Automotive engine Part of the Automobile series Basic terminology Bore Compression ratio Crank Cylinder Dead centre Diesel engine Dry sump Engine balance Engine configuration Engine displacement Engine knocking Firing order Hydrolock Petrol engine Power band Redline Spark-ignition engine Stroke Stroke ratio Wet sump Main components Connecting rod Crankcase Crankpin Crankshaft Crossplane Cylinder bank Cylinder block Cylinder head (crossflow, reverse-flow) Flywheel Head gasket Hypereutectic piston Main bearing Piston Piston ring Starter ring gear Sump Valvetrain Cam Cam follower Camshaft Desmodromic valve Hydraulic tappet Multi-valve Overhead camshaft Overhead valve Pneumatic valve springs Poppet valve Pushrod Rocker arm Sleeve valve Tappet Timing belt Timing mark Valve float Variable valve timing Aspiration Air filter Blowoff valve Boost controller Butterfly valve Centrifugal-type supercharger Cold air intake Dump valve Electronic throttle control Forced induction Inlet manifold Intake Intercooler Manifold vacuum Naturally aspirated engine Ram-air intake Scroll-type supercharger Short ram air intake Supercharger Throttle Throttle body Turbocharger Twin-turbo Variable-geometry turbocharger Variable-length intake manifold Warm air intake Fuel system Carburetor Common rail Direct injection Fuel filter Fuel injection Fuel pump Fuel tank Gasoline direct injection Indirect injection Injection pump Lean-burn Stratified charge engine Turbo fuel stratified injection Unit injector Ignition Contact breaker Magneto Distributor Electrical ballast High tension leads Ignition coil Spark plug Wasted spark Electrics and engine management Air–fuel ratio meter Alternator Automatic Performance Control Car battery (lead–acid battery) Crankshaft position sensor Dynamo Drive by wire Electronic control unit Engine control unit Engine coolant temperature sensor Glow plug Idle air control actuator MAP sensor Mass flow sensor Oxygen sensor Starter motor Throttle position sensor Exhaust system Automobile emissions control Catalytic converter Diesel particulate filter Exhaust manifold Glasspack Muffler Engine cooling Air cooling Antifreeze (ethylene glycol) Core plug Electric fan Fan belt Radiator Thermostat Water cooling Viscous fan (fan clutch) Other components Balance shaft Block heater Combustion chamber Cylinder head porting Gasket Motor oil Oil filter Oil pump Oil sludge PCV valve Seal Synthetic oil Underdrive pulleys Portal Category Retrieved from "https://en.
Title: Cylinder Head Pressure Testing Equipment