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Bingo cards are playing cards designed to facilitate the game of Bingo in its various forms around the world. History In the early 1500s the people of Italy began to play a game called "Lo Gioco del Lotto d'Italia," which literally means "The game of lotto of Italy." The game operated very much like a modern lottery as players placed bets on the chances of certain numbers being drawn. By the 1700s, a version of Lo Gioco del Lotto d'Italia was played in France, where paper cards were first used to keep track of numbers drawn by a caller.

[1] Before the advent of printing machines, numbers on bingo cards were either painted by hand or stamped using rubber stamps onto thick cardboard.[2] Cards were reusable, meaning players used tokens to mark called numbers. The number of unique cards was limited as randomization had to occur by hand. Before the advent of online Bingo, cards were printed on card stock and, increasingly, disposable paper.

[3] While cardboard and paper cards are still in use, Bingo halls are turning more to "flimsies" (also called "throwaways") — a card inexpensively printed on very thin paper to overcome increasing cost — and electronic Bingo cards to overcome the difficulty with randomization.[4][5] Types of Cards There are two types of Bingo cards. One is a 5x5 grid meant for 75-ball Bingo, which is largely played in the U.

S. The other uses a 9x3 grid for U.K. style "Housie" or 90-ball Bingo.[6] 75-ball Bingo Cards Players use cards that feature five columns of five squares each, with every square containing a number (except the middle square, which is designated a "FREE" space). The columns are labeled "B" (numbers 1–15), "I" (numbers 16–30), "N" (numbers 31–45), "G" (numbers 46–60), and "O" (numbers 61–75).

[7] Randomization A popular Bingo myth[8] claims that U.S. Bingo innovator Edwin S. Lowe contracted Columbia University professor Carl Leffler to create 6,000 random and unique Bingo cards. The effort is purported to have driven Leffler insane. Manual random permutation is an onerous and time-consuming task that limited the number of Bingo cards available for play for centuries. The calculation of random permutations is a matter of statistics principally relying on the use of factorial calculations.

In its simplest sense, the number of unique "B" columns assumes that all 15 numbers are available for the first row. That only 14 of the numbers are available for the second row (one having been consumed for the first row). And that only 13, 12, and 11 numbers are available for each of the third, fourth, and fifth rows. Thus, the number of unique "B" (and "I", "G", and "O", respectively) columns is (15*14*13*12*11) = 360,360.

The combinations of the "N" column differ due to the use of the free space. Therefore, it has only (15*14*13*12) = 32,760 unique combinations. The product of the five rows (360,3604 * 32,760) describes the total number of unique playing cards. That number is 552,446,474,061,128,648,601,600,000 simplified as 5.52x1026 or 552 septillion. Printing a complete set of Bingo cards is impossible for all practical purposes.

If one trillion cards could be printed each second, a printer would require more than seventeen thousand years to print just one set. However, while the number combination of each card is unique, the number of winning cards is not. If a winning game using e.g. row #3 requires the number set B10, I16, G59, and O69, there are 333,105,095,983,435,776 (333 quadrillion) winning cards. Therefore, calculation of the number of Bingo cards is more practical from the point of view of calculating the number of unique winning cards.

For example, in a simple one-pattern game of Bingo a winning card may be the first person to complete row #3. Because the "N" column contains a free space, the maximum number of cards that guarantee a unique winner is (15*15*15*15) = 50,625. Because the players need to only focus on row #3, the remaining numbers in rows #1, #2, #4, and #5 are statistically insignificant for purposes of game play and can be selected in any manner as long as no number is duplicated on any card.

Perhaps the most common pattern set, known as "Straight-line Bingo" is completing any of the five rows, columns, or either of the main diagonals.[5] In this case the possibility of multiple winning cards is unavoidable because any one of twelve patterns on every card can win the game. But not all 552 septillion cards need to be in play. Any given set of numbers in a column (e.g., 15, 3, 14, 5, 12 in the "B" column) can be represented in any of 5! (for the "B", "I", "G", and "O" columns.

4! for the "N" column) or 120 different ways. These combinations are all statistically redundant. Therefore, the total number of cards can be reduced by a factor of (5!4 * 4!) = 4,976,640,000 for a total unique winning card set of 111,007,923,832,370,565 or 111 quadrillion. (Still impossibly enormous, but our eager printer described above would only need 1.29 days to complete the task.) The challenge of a multiple-pattern game is selecting a winner wherein a tie is possible.

The solution is to name the player who shouts "Bingo!" first, is the winner. However, it is more practical and manageable to use card sets that avoid multiple-pattern games. The single-pattern #3 row has already been mentioned, but its limited card set causes problems for the emerging online Bingo culture. Larger patterns, e.g. a diamond pattern consisting of cell positions B3, I2 and I4, N1 and N5, G2 and G4, and O3, are often used by online Bingo games to permit large number of players while ensuring only one player can win.

(A unique winner is further desirable for online play where network delays and other communication interference can unfairly affect multiple winning cards. The winner would be determined by the first person to click the "Bingo!" button (emulating the shout of "Bingo!" during a live game).) In this case the number of unique winning cards is calculated as (152*(15*14)3/23) = 260,465,625 (260 million).

The division by two for each of the "I", "N", and "G" columns is necessary to once again remove redundant number combinations, such as [31,#,#,#,45] and [45,#,#,#,31] in the N column. 90-ball bingo cards A typical housie/Bingo ticket [9] In UK bingo, or Housie, cards are usually called "tickets." The cards contain three rows and nine columns. Each row contains five numbers and four blank spaces randomly distributed along the row.

Numbers are apportioned by column (1–9, 10–19, 20–29, 30–39, 40–49, 50–59, 60–69, 70–79 and 80–90). Other Types of Cards Break Open See also Bingo Card Game Keno Housie Housie References Young, William H. and Nancy K. The Great Depression in America: A Cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 978-0-313-33521-1. Footnotes ^ Crossland, Drake. "Bingo:A Game's Journey Through History".

EZinearticles.com. ^ "Bingo Card History". VirtualBingo. Retrieved 2012-12-08. ^ "Bingo Cards". BettingExpert. Retrieved 2012-12-08. ^ "Types of Bingo Cards". VirtualBingo. Retrieved 2012-12-08. ^ a b Andrew Bowser. "Bingo Equipment". How Stuff Works. Retrieved 2012-12-08. ^ Hoeft, Mike (2014). The bingo queens of Oneida : how two moms started tribal gaming in Wisconsin (First edition. ed.). ISBN 0870206524.

Retrieved 20 January 2016. ^ John, Player (1 January 2014). "Gala Bingo Mobile App: play wherever you are". Retrieved 20 January 2016. ^ "Bingo Myths: Fact or Fiction?". My Casino Strategy. Retrieved 2012-12-08. ^ "bingobonuspage:What are the different Bingo game types?". Retrieved 12 April 2016. Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Bingo_card&oldid=807786595"

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The number of different patterns that can be called in a bingo game is practically limitless. Most callers know dozens of them. Some patterns are traditional, while others have been introduced more recently. Many are known to players everywhere, and a few are the inventions of creative and passionate bingo players. Experienced bingo players will realize that the same pattern may go by several different names, so that one person's "kite" is another person's "magic wand.

" In this article, we'll discuss how being familiar with card patterns can give you an edge over other players. We'll even share how choosing nonduplicate cards, using the same cards, and other tips can improve your odds for winning the jackpot. And some luck won't hurt either.The types of patterns that will be played during a session are usually set ahead of time. Single games are not limited to a single pattern (for example, the caller may call a picture frame on the way to a blackout).

It's possible that a player can win two jackpots in the same game by completing both the first and second patterns; or, it's possible the game may feature two different winners if one player gets the picture frame but a second player gets the blackout. Patterns are not limited to one card, either. For example, giant bingo is a straight-line bingo that extends from one card face to another. T Pattern Many of the patterns listed below can be designated "crazy," as in crazy snake.

That simply means the snake pattern can be pointing any direction on the card. Thus, a T pattern can only be won straight up and down (just the way a capital T is written), but a crazy T can be won on its side or even upside down. Likewise, any pattern designated "the hard way" simply means the free space cannot be used in the winning pattern.To keep the game interesting, most halls will change the patterns frequently.

Some of the patterns can get pretty creative; the biggest problem with this is that trying to find a complex pattern on a dozen cards at once is an acquired skill. If the pattern is complicated, don't worry -- it's likely to be printed in a program or displayed on a lighted electronic board overhead, and it certainly will be explained by the caller prior to the game. But that still doesn't make it any easier for an inexperienced player to pick out the pattern when there are blotches all over their card.

It's very important that you pay close attention to your cards in complicated games, or else you may reach bingo and not even realize it until it's too late. This happens all the time!One way to keep things simple is to break down a pattern into its elements. The following are descriptions of popular patterns grouped by similarities. In some cases, you'll find suggestions for how you might think of the patterns in order to simplify things while scanning your cards.

Pay attention to special rules (for example, the two lines in double regular bingo need not run parallel to each other).Straight Line PatternsIn one-line bingo, also called regular bingo, a player simply needs to cover five numbers in a row vertically, horizontally, or diagonally. In two lines, or double regular bingo, the lines do not necessarily need to run the same direction. The same is true for triple regular bingo, where it's possible to win with one horizontal, one vertical, and one diagonal line.

Railroad Tracks Pattern Line Combo PatternsThese patterns can be thought of as special configurations of double and triple bingo. Two horizontal or vertical lines together make up railroad tracks. Asterisk is the two diagonals plus the vertical line down the center; add the horizontal line through the middle for starburst. Bow tie is just four lines: two diagonals, plus a vertical line down each edge.

Letter PatternsTake a look. While this might seem like alphabet soup, it's just more straight-line combos. Remember, if the letter is designated "crazy," the pattern can be formed right-side up, upside down, or lying on either side.Lucky Seven PatternsLucky seven is a double bingo consisting of the horizontal line along the top edge of the card plus the diagonal line from top right to bottom left, forming -- yes, you guessed it -- the number seven.

Odd-Even Pattern Coverall, Odd-Even, Speedball PatternsUsually, coverall, also known as blackout, is used for a large, progressive jackpot. Players try to daub off all 24 numbered spaces on a card within a specific number of calls. In a 51-number blackout, for example, a player must cover all 24 spaces in 51 calls. If no one accomplishes this, the game ends and the jackpot rolls over. As mentioned earlier, some jurisdictions prohibit progressive jackpots; in that case, coveralls are played until someone hits bingo, regardless of how many balls are called.

In odd-even, a variation of coverall, the caller instructs players to blot out all even (or odd) numbers, and then calls only odd (or even) numbers until someone wins. The caller will usually use the day of the month, a ball drawn from the blower, or some other method to determine whether the game is set at odd or even.Speedball is a fast-paced version of coverall in which the caller rapidly calls out numbers one after the other until one player covers all spaces.

The caller may even omit the letters to make it more challenging.Picture Frame PatternsA picture frame pattern includes every space along the edge of the card. Broken picture frame is every other space along the edge, starting with the corners. An inside frame is a small box inside what would be the larger picture frame area. Big Diamond Pattern Diamond PatternsLittle diamond is a four-square pattern that includes the squares immediately to the top, bottom, left, and right of the free space.

The points of the eight-square big diamond touch the center square of each side.Postage Stamp/Double Postage Stamp PatternsIn a postage stamp pattern, to win you need to cover four squares in a corner. In single postage stamp, players usually need to have the top right corner covered (so the board looks like an envelope that's ready to mail). Double postage stamp can include any two corners.Six-Pack/Block of Eight PatternsThese patterns are groupings similar to that of postage stamp.

Six-pack is made up of two rows of three squares, just like a six-pack of soda or beer. Make that two rows of four squares each for block of eight. (Block of nine, as one would expect, is three rows of three squares each.)Kite (Magic Wand)/Arrow PatternsThese are basically more variations on the postage stamp pattern. Kite is a four-square box in one corner (the kite), plus a diagonal line all the way to the opposite corner (the tail of the kite).

A "crazy" kite is one in which the tail points to any of the four corners. Arrow looks a little bit like kite, but it consists of a six-square triangle instead of a four-square box. American Flag Pattern American Flag/Castle PatternsAmerican flag and castle are two horizontal bingo variations. American flag covers the top three lines plus a two-square flagpole at the bottom. The flagpole may be on the left or right.

A castle covers the bottom two rows of the bingo card, as well as every other square in the middle row. As you can see, this creates the look of turrets on a castle.Snake PatternsThe snake pattern consists of a zigzag line of five squares along the top edge of the card, starting with the second square in the B column. Remember, a crazy snake is the same pattern, but it can start in any of the corners.

Now that you are familiar with potential bingo card patterns, let's look at how players try to increase the mathematical odds of their numbers being called.

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