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A common type of pin tumbler lock, of the euro cylinder type. The pin tumbler lock (or Yale lock, after lock manufacturers Yale) is a lock mechanism that uses pins of varying lengths to prevent the lock from opening without the correct key. Pin tumblers are most commonly employed in cylinder locks, but may also be found in tubular pin tumbler locks (also known as radial locks or ace locks). History The first tumbler lock was found in the ruins of the Palace of Khorsabad in Iraq.
 Basic principles of the pin tumbler lock may date as far back as 4000 BC in Egypt; the lock consisted of a wooden post affixed to the door, and a horizontal bolt that slid into the post. The bolt had vertical openings into which a set of pins fitted. These could be lifted, using a key, to a sufficient height to allow the bolt to move and unlock the door. This wooden lock was one of Egypt's major developments in domestic architecture during classical times.
 Egyptian Lock Mechanism The key is inserted into the lock bolt, and the pins are lifted The key is then pulled out of the lock along with the deadbolt Such a lock, however, may be defeated by lifting the pins uniformly beyond the unlatching point. In 1805, the earliest patent for a double-acting pin tumbler lock — one where lifting the pins too much or too little prevented opening — was granted to American physician Abraham O.
Stansbury in England. It was based on earlier Egyptian locks and Joseph Bramah's tubular pin tumbler lock. Two years later, Stansbury was granted a patent in the United States for his lock. In 1848, Linus Yale, Sr. invented the modern pin-tumbler lock. In 1861, Linus Yale, Jr. was inspired by the original 1840s pin-tumbler lock designed by his father, thus inventing and patenting a smaller flat key with serrated edges as well as pins of varying lengths within the lock itself, the same design of the pin-tumbler lock in use today.
 Design The pin tumbler is commonly used in cylinder locks. In this type of lock, an outer casing has a cylindrical hole in which the plug is housed. To open the lock, the plug must rotate. The plug has a straight-shaped slot known as the keyway at one end to allow the key to enter the plug; the other end may have a cam or lever, which activates a mechanism to retract a locking bolt. The keyway often has protruding ledges that serve to prevent the key pins from falling into the plug, and to make the lock more resistant to picking.
A series of holes, typically five or six of them, are drilled vertically into the plug. These holes contain key pins of various lengths, which are rounded to permit the key to slide over them easily. Above each key pin is a corresponding set of driver pins, which are spring-loaded. Simpler locks typically have only one driver pin for each key pin, but locks requiring multi-keyed entry, such as a group of locks having a master key, may have extra driver pins known as spacer pins.
The outer casing has several vertical shafts, which hold the spring-loaded pins. When the plug and outer casing are assembled, the pins are pushed down into the plug by the springs. The point where the plug and cylinder meet is called the shear point. With a key properly cut and inserted into the groove on the end of the plug, the pins will rise causing them to align exactly at the shear point. This allows the plug to rotate, thus opening the lock.
When the key is not in the lock, the pins straddle the shear point, preventing the plug from rotating. Modern Mechanism Without a key in the lock, the driver pins (blue) are pushed downwards, preventing the plug (yellow) from rotating. When an incorrect key is inserted into the lock, the key pins (red) and driver pins (blue) do not align with the shear line; therefore, it does not allow the plug (yellow) to rotate.
When the correct key is inserted, the gaps between the key pins (red) and driver pins (blue) align with the edge of the plug (yellow). With the gaps between the pins aligned with the shear line, the plug (yellow) can rotate freely. Cylinder locks Euro profile locks, an example of a cylinder lock. These are commonly found on uPVC doors and commercial buildings where re-keying doors is common.
Commonly pin tumbler locks are found in a cylinder that can be easily unscrewed by a locksmith to facilitate rekeying. The first main advantage to a cylinder lock, also known as a profile cylinder lock or euro, is that the cylinder can be changed without altering the boltwork hardware. Removing the cylinder typically requires only loosening a set screw, then sliding the cylinder from the boltwork.
The second is that it is usually possible to obtain, from various lock manufacturers, cylinders in different formats that can all be used with the same type of key. This allows the user to have keyed-alike, and master-keyed systems that incorporate a wide variety of different types of lock, such as nightlatches, deadbolts and roller door locks. Typically, commercial padlocks can also be included, although these rarely have removable cylinders.
Standardised types of cylinder include: Rim mounted (also known as night latch cylinders) Euro cylinders Key-in-knobset cylinders Ingersoll format cylinders American, and Scandinavian round mortise cylinders Scandinavian oval cylinders There are also standardised cross-sectional profiles for lock cylinders that may vary in length - for example to suit different door thicknesses. These profiles include the europrofile (or DIN standard), the British oval profile and the Swiss profile Some types of cylinder lock are vulnerable to an attack called lock snapping.
Electronic / digital cylinder Electronic cylinder lock An electronic / digital cylinder is a locking device which operates by means of electric current. Electric locks are sometimes stand-alone with an electronic control assembly mounted directly to the lock. More often electric locks are connected to an access control system. The advantages of an electric lock connected to an access control system include: key control, where keys can be added and removed without re-keying the lock cylinder; fine access control, where time and place are factors; and transaction logging, where activity is recorded.
Master keying A master keyed lock is a variation of the pin tumbler lock that allows the lock to be opened with two (or more) different keys. This type is often used for doorlocks in commercial buildings with multiple tenants, such as office buildings, hotels, and storage facilities. Each tenant is given a key that only unlocks their own door, called the change key, but the second key is the master key, which unlocks all the doors, and is usually kept by the building manager, so they can enter any room in the building.
In a master keyed lock, some or all of the shaft hole in the lock have three pins in them instead of two. Between the driver pin and the key pin is a third pin called the spacer pin. Thus each pin line has two shear points, one where the driver and spacer pins meet, and one where the spacer and key pins meet. So the lock will open with two keys; one aligns the first set of shear points and the other aligns the second set of shear points.
The locks are manufactured so one set of shear points is unique to each lock, while the second set is identical in all the locks. A more secure type of mechanism has two separate tumblers, each opened by one key. More complicated master-key lock systems are also made, with two or more levels of master keying, so there can be subordinate master keys that open only certain subsets of the locks, and a top-level master key that opens all the locks.
Individually keyed system (KD) With an individually keyed system, each cylinder can be opened by its unique key. Keyed alike (KA) This system allows for a number of cylinders to be operated by the same key. It is ideally suited to residential and commercial applications such as front and back doors. Master keyed (MK) A master-keyed system involves each lock having its own individual key which will not operate any other lock in the system, but where all locks can be operated by a single master-key.
This is usually applied in commercial environments. Grand master keyed (GMK) This is an extension of the master-keyed system where each lock has its own individual key and the locks are divided into 2 or more groups. Each lock group is operated by a master-key and the entire system is operated by one grand master-key. This is ideally utilized in complex commercial systems. Common entrance suite / maison keying (CES) This system is widely used in apartments, office blocks and hotels.
Each apartment (for example) has its own individual key which will not open the doors to any other apartments, but will open common entrance doors and communal service areas. It is often combined with a master-keyed system in which said key is kept by the landlord. Vulnerabilities Lock picking The basic pin tumbler lock alone is vulnerable to several lock picking methods and attacks, the most common being lock bumping and snap guns.
To combat this, many higher security cylinders incorporate the use of specialised pins known as security pins which are designed to catch in the lock cylinder if a snap gun or bump key is used. Lock snapping Lock snapping is a method of forced entry that only affects certain types of cylinder lock, such as the euro cylinder which are commonly found on uPVC doors in Europe. Lock snapping involves applying a strong torque force to the lock cylinder, usually with a pair of locking pliers, thereby breaking the mechanism and allowing access to the latch.
 It can take between 50 seconds and 2 minutes to snap the lock and gain entry. Police in the UK have estimated that around 22 million doors throughout the country could be at risk from lock snapping. Lock snapping is possible when the lock has a weakness where the retaining bolt passes through a thinner part of the lock. A recent development is to build a lock with a front section that snaps off the main body, leaving enough of the mechanism behind to prevent access to the operating latch.
Some designs feature more than one sacrificial section which can stop the door from being opened from the attacked side (even with the key) while allowing the door to be opened from the other side. However these design offer limited protection. The British Standard cylinders that meet the TS007 3 standard can prevent this method of attack. They have been shown to reduce burglaries in implemented areas by up-to 60%.
See also Disc tumbler lock Key relevance Lock picking Magnetic-coded lock Tubular pin tumbler lock Wafer tumbler lock Early patents U.S. Patent 8,071 – Lock U.S. Patent 9,850 – Lock and key U.S. Patent 31,278 – Lock References ^ a b James, Peter, and I. J. Thorpe. Ancient Inventions. New York: Ballantine, 1994. Print. ^ Locksmithing: From Apprentice to Master. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 79.
^ The Complete Book of Home, Site, and Office Security: Selecting, Installing, and Troubleshooting Systems and Devices. McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 11. ^ The Geek Atlas: 128 Places Where Science and Technology Come Alive. O'Reilly Media, Inc. p. 445. ^ "Inventor of the Week Archive". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. ^ a b "37p locks no match for Huddersfield criminals, warns W Yorks Police chief".
Huddersfield Daily Examiner. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 28 May 2015. ^ "Lock Snapping : What is it? Find out more As seen on BBC/ITV". www.euro-secure.com. Retrieved 2016-03-11. ^ "Advice relating to Euro cylinder locks - North Yorkshire Police". 2013-07-27. Retrieved 2017-07-07. ^ "Rise in 'lock snapping' burglaries in West Yorkshire". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-03-16. ^ "Police Advice on Lock Snapping - Lincolnshire Police".
2013-08-10. Retrieved 2017-07-07. External links The pin tumbler invention at Yale company site Popular Science, November 1946 How Your Home Lock Works Video on changing a euro cylinder Video on lock snapping v t e Locksmithing & lock picking Topics Electric strike Key control Key relevance Lock bumping Lock picking Lockout-tagout Maison key system Rekeying Single-point locking Three-point locking Components Bitting Bolt stump Break Interchangeable core Key blank Key code Keyhole Lockset Shear line Split pin Key types Berlin key Bump key Change key Master key Skeleton key Smart key Tubular key Transponder key Mechanical locks Bored cylindrical lock Bramah lock Cylinder lock Disc tumbler lock Key retainer Lever tumbler lock (Chubb detector lock) Magnetic-coded lock Magnetic keyed lock Mortise lock Padlock Combination lock Rotary combination lock Time-delay combination locks Pin tumbler lock (snib) Protector lock Relocking device Time lock Tubular pin tumbler lock Warded lock Wafer tumbler lock Electronic locks Electromagnetic lock Electronic lock Electric strike Magnetic-coded lock Keycard lock Electronic/digital-cylinder pin tumbler lock Specific lock types Bicycle lock Chamber lock Child safety lock Dead bolt Keycard lock Kensington Security Slot Luggage lock Power door locks The Club TSA lock Tools Lockpick Slim Jim Snap gun Tubular lock pick Related Bolt cutter Door chain Exit control lock Famous locksmiths Interlock (engineering) Keychain Key (engineering) Lock manufacturers Lock puzzle Lock snapping Locksport Two-man rule Category:Locksmithing Keys Locks Book Retrieved from "https://en.
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Locks are used everywhere, but they are not all the same. In fact, even the shape of the lock changes, sometimes for no other reason than geography. The variation can complicate the most basic access control designs, and not being aware of the differences can result in costly mistakes. In this note, we compare euro, oval, KIK, interchangeable core and mortise profiles, why they differ, and where they are used.
Overview A 'lock profile' describes the basic shape of the lock cylinder, or the device that accepts a mechanical key. Over the last fifty years, the number of profiles has slowly consolidated down to five major types, shown in the image below: In some cases, geography is the contributing reason for differences. For example, 'Euro(pean) Profile' locks are almost never found in North American service, where 'Mortise' cylinders are predominantly used.
In other cases, certain profiles have functional advantages that can be missed, and hardware is never designed to work with every type. Profiles Matter Increasingly in electronic access control, attention must be paid to the mechanical locks. With the emergence of 'stand alone' lock systems and retrofit solutions like Aperio and Salto, new equipment must be purchased that works with existing keying systems and door preps.
This requires even an IT focused tech to understand mechanical-only components like door locks. The image below shows three common examples of where 'high tech' access control and 'low tech' mechanical lock profiles converge: The risk in misunderstanding can range from incorrectly ordering product to specifying a solution that flat-out will not work. Indeed, a small detail carries big significance! We examine the major types and their differences below.
Get Video Surveillance News In Your Inbox Get Video Surveillance News In Your Inbox Major Types Euro Profile: European locksmiths agreed on a 'standard profile' of door locks over 150 years ago. In general, standardization would make manufacturing and servicing locks easier, and the 'Euro Profile Lock' became the shape that was a compromise of several leading types. A key attribute is they are sold in 'dual cylinder' configurations - or rather, be made to lock with a key both from the inside AND outside of an opening - an orientation typically illegal in North America.
Pros: Lock fits the deep, narrow doors common in Europe, some dating to Medieval periods. 'Modern' pin tumbler internals. Cons: The thin profile can be easily broken, and modern doors may not be deep enough to fully support the deep lock. Oval Profile: This profile is a variation on the Euro Profile, but has limited use in N. America. Because the profile is wider, the lock is not as precise to machine and larger pins can be used inside, lowering the manufacturing cost relative to European Profiles.
Pros: The larger profile makes the oval profile more difficult to break and tamper. Cons: However, the use of larger pins directly relates to the 'pickability' difficulty of the lock. Oval locks can be easier to pick than other types. KIK Locks: Called the 'Key in Knob' cylinder, this profile is common to modern commercial leversets and residential knob locks. While the 'core', or the part the key inserts into may be the same diameter as other lock profile, the rest of the lock is quite small and thin.
If KIK locks are not installed into handles or knob and surrounded by metal, they are very vulnerable to being broken off. Pros: Very popular profile globally, and nearly every major keyway and hardware manufacturer supports the profile. Cons: Must be installed in a surface-mounted handle or knob, sometimes requiring complex linkages (tailpieces) interfacing with latches. Turning key to unlock doors can be difficult as a result.
Interchangeable Core: This type of lock is valued for it's ability to 'rekey doors' quickly in the field. IC locks have a removable core (only removable with a special key) that fits into other similar lock cylinders. If a facility needs to rekey a door, they simply can swap cores, effectively changing the keys able to open the door. The entire process of swapping an 'IC core' takes seconds, and is commonly used in 'Master Key' systems to minimize field repinning.
Pros: Quick and rapid repinning of locks. "Temporary cores" can be installed that allow construction/cleaning crews access, but then changed at work completion by non-locksmiths. Cons: Authoritative management of keys and locks are required when using IC locks in large systems, or else big problems in key assignment can result. Due to size, IC cores cannot be installed in all locks. Mortise: Taking the name from the 'mortise lockset' where it first was installed, this profile is essentially an 'American' standard profile and is used in many different types of locking hardware.
Pros: Threaded housing is securely installed into a door, and is a substantial piece of metal that cannot be snapped/broken like the 'Euro Profile'. Cons: Because of their substantial size, mortise locks cannot fit every door and every lockset. The larger size also requires more base metal to manufacture, resulting in higher relative costs. Pricing The cost of these profiles range widely, depending on construction materials, security features, and branding.
However, all but the 'high security' types generally cost $50 or less, and often under $15. Cams & Tailpieces One of the most important elements of a lock is the 'cam' or 'tailpiece'. This piece of metal turns with the lock cylinder when a key is inserted, and serves as the physical interface between the lock cylinder and the latches. There are more than 50 major types of cams/tailpiece used today, with a few examples show below: Since every lock mechanism is different (dimensionally, action, latch configuration) the cam varies between lock types.
Specific lock companies may have standardized on one or a few cams, but substantial variations are found between lock types. Usually the lockset or leverset manufacturer will supply the proper cam/tailpiece with the product, but this element may need to be installed onto a lock cylinder during install. Regardless of lock profile type, this cam or tailpiece is generally secured with small screws into the core of the lock.
Vulnerabilities No matter how advanced a mechanical lock claims to be, it will always be vulnerable to weaknesses. Some locks are less vulnerable or differently vulnerable than others, but given enough time and familiarity, any lock can be opened. 'Security', or rather 'minimal vulnerabilities' is one aspect of why the five profiles mentioned above have become 'standards'. These particular profiles have shown over time to be resilient against tampering or attack compared to other less successful designs.
However, the videos below show that even these 'best in class' profiles can be exploited over time. Lock Snapping: This vulnerability applies primarily to 'euro profile' locks, but can also be used against some 'KIK locks' if they are not sufficiently reinforced: [embedded content] Lock Bumping: This vulnerability applies to every type of lock commonly used today; the 'Pin Tumbler' lock. While this vulnerability exists, it remains a fringe concern of most security managers, who claim intruders often seek easier methods of illicit access rather than the semi-skilled bumping of locks: [embedded content] EAC Impact The profile of the mechanical lock is not always a factor on selecting EAC hardware, but for some systems it is critical.
For a system using electric strikes or maglocks to secure a door, the mechanical lock profile is largely irrelevant. However, for 'stand alone' locks that replace or retrofit the entire lockset, the profile is a huge differentiator. Take for example these three Salto options: These three parts each fit three separate locks, and are not interchangeable. Unless the designer or specifiers understands which profile is needed, an entire system can be purchased that is unusable.
Also, look at these SARGENT 'stand alone' locks: These locks are essentially the same units, with the only difference being which type of lock profile they use. If an end-user has a preference, and existing inventory of spares, or a particular keying system in use, ensuring the same lock is used in new units will prevent management and usability issues.
Title: Types Of Cylinder Locks